Aglianico is a black grape grown in the Campania and Basilicata regions of Italy. In its youth the wine is very tannic and concentrated, with need of a few years of aging before it can be approachable. As it ages the fruit becomes more pronounced and the tannins more balanced with the rest of the wine.
The leading Greek red varietal. The red wine produced from the grape is characteristically spicy with notes of plum. It has low acidity but good fruitiness and coloring.
Airén is a white grape and has been cited as most common variety in Spain, comprising 30% of all vines. Airén is most abundant in the Valdepeñas and La Mancha regions.
Albariño or Alvarinho is a variety of white wine grape grown mainly in Galicia (northwest Spain) and northern Portugal, where it is used to make white wines.
Albariño is the Galician name for the grape. In Portugal it is commonly known as Alvarinho
Aleatico is a red wine grape and is most notable for being the primary grape in the cult wine Aleatico di Portoferraio made in Elba. It is grown most commonly in the Apulia and Lazio region of Italy. In Chile is known as Red Moscatel.
Alicanté Bouchet
Alicanté Bouchet is a cross between Grenache and Petit Bouschet. Alicante Bouschet is a rare grape which has red colored flesh as well as skin. Due to its red juice, it is used primarily as a blending grape for color and tannin. Originally from Spain, it has become a popularly planted grape in California.
Aligoté is “Burgundy’s second white grape”. It’s used to make dry white wines with relatively significant plantings in Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and Bulgaria.
Altesse or Roussette is a variety of white grape found primarily in the Savoy wine region of France. It yields small harvests and ripens late and the wine has exotic aromas, often together with citrus and herbs, with good acidity. Altesse wines are considered to age well.
A synonym for Garnacha or Grenache.
Arbois is a variety of white grape occasionally grown in the Loire region of France. It is mainly found in the Jura region, in a town called Arbois.
Arneis is a white wine grape variety originating from Piedmont in northwest Italy. The wine made from the Arneis grape tends to be dry and vibrant with aromas of pears and apricots.
Asyrtiko is often described as Greece’s best white wine grape. Indigenous to the island of Santorini, but is planted much further afield to make a variety of dry and sweet wines.
Athiri is a white Greek wine grape used to make Retsina in Rhodes. Noted for its lemon character. Elsewhere in Greece it is blended with Assyrtiko.
Depending on location, Auxerrois is a synonym for a variety of grapes. “Auxerrois Blanc” is a white wine grape that is widely grown in Alsace, Germany and Luxembourg. In Cahors it’s the local name for Malbec.
Bacchus is a white wine grape that was created by viticulturalist Peter Morio. It is a cross between Silvaner, Riesling and Müller-Thurgau. In addition to Germany, it’s also planted in England where it produces wine of reasonable quality.
Barbera is a red wine grape extensively planted in Italy. It gives good yields and can impart deep colour, low tannins and (unusually for a warm-climate red grape) high levels of acid. The best known appellation is Barbera d’Asti. When young, the wines offer a very intense aroma of fresh red and black berries. In the lightest versions notes of cherries, raspberries and blueberries and with notes of blackberry.
Bastardo is an old variety of red wine grape. It is grown in small amounts in many parts of Western Europe but mainly used in Portuguese port wine. It makes deep cherry red wines with high alcohol and flavours of red berry fruits.
Plantings of Bourboulenc are now concentrated primarily in the south of France, in the Côteaux du Languedoc appellations of Corbières and Minervois, and in the southern Rhône Valley in the Tavel, Lirac, Côtes-du-Rhône and Châteauneuf-du-Pape appellations.

The white and rosé wines of the southern Rhône Valley constitute less than ten percent of total production, with white wines accounting for only two to three percent. These wines are almost always blended from a number of varieties. In addition to the prevalent Grenache Blanc, Bourboulenc is often blended with Clairette, Bourboulenc, Rousanne and Marsanne, notably in white Châteauneuf-du-Pape, and all may play a minor role in the blend of red Châteauneuf-du-Pape.

Blatina is red wine grape variety indigenous to Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has a dark ruby red colour, particular and characteristic aroma, as well as a full and harmonious taste
Blauer Portugieser
Blauer Portugieser is a red Austrian and German wine grape found primarily in the Rheinhessen, Pfalz and wine regions of Lower Austria. It is also one of the permitted grapes in the Hungarian wine Egri Bikavér (Bull’s blood). It normally produces a simple light red wine, which is characterized by a fresh, tart and light body
Blaufränkisch is a late-ripening black grape variety gives red wines which are typically rich in tannin and may exhibit a pronounced spicy, masculine character. The grape is grown across Central Europe. In Hungary the grape is called Kékfrankos and is a major ingredient in the famous red wine blend known as Bull’s Blood (Egri Bikavér)
Bobal is a native to the Utiel-Requena region in Valencia, Spain. Bobal is the third most planted variety in Spain. The wines produced tend to be fruity, low in alcohol content and high in acidity
Bondola is a wine grape variety grown in the northern part of Ticino, Switzerland. It is mainly used in traditional wines, mainly by small or family wineries, and thus not very widespread in shops or restaurants.
Brachetto (Italian) or Braquet (French) is a grape variety found in Piedmont (Italy) and in Provence (France) which is used to make both red and rosé wines. At Canelli, on the border between the hills of Asti and the Lange proper, the grape is known as Borgogna. There is also a Brachetto cultivated in Argentina.
Bual (or Boal) is a variety of grape used in the production of medium-rich fortified wines from Madeira Island.
Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc is one of the major varieties of red wine grape in Bordeaux. It is mostly grown for blending with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in the Bordeaux style. It is is also vinified alone, particularly in Chinon in the Loire. Depending on growing region and the style of wine, additional aromas can include tobacco, raspberry, and cassis, sometimes even violets. The Cabernet Franc wine’s color is bright pale red.
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world’s most widely recognised red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country. The aroma of blackcurrants is one of the most distinctive and characteristic element of Cabernet Sauvignon that is present in nearly every style of the wine across the globe. Styles from various regions and producers may also have aromas of eucalyptus, mint and tobacco. As the wines age they can sometimes develop aromas associated with cedar, cigar boxes and pencil shavings.
Canaiolo (also called Canaiolo Nero or Uva Canina) is a red grape mostly used in Tuscany (Italy) together with Sangiovese and Colorino to create Chianti wine and as an important but secondary component of Vino Nobile di Montepulciano. Maximum percent of canaiolo grapes in all the different sub-areas of Chianti is 10%.
Carignan is a red wine grape that originated in Cariñena, Aragon (Spain). It’s generally blended with Cinsaut, Grenache, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Mourvèdre and Merlot. Most commonly found in the Languedoc where Syrah and Grenache are considered its best blending partners.
Along with Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Merlot, Malbec and Petit verdot, Carménère is considered part of the original six red grapes of Bordeaux, France. However, the home of Carménère could now said to be Chile. It imparts a cherry-like, fruity flavor with smokey, spicy and earthy notes and a deep crimson color. Its taste might also be reminiscent of dark chocolate, tobacco, and leather.
Charbono is a black grape the second most commonly grown variety in Argentina, where it is known as Bonarda. The wine made from Charbono tends to be dark, with medium to high tannins and acidity. Charbono ripens quite late and produces wines of great substance, with significant aging potential
The Chardonnay grape is very “malleable”, i.e. it reflects and takes on the impression of its terroir and winemaker.
It comes in many different styles, from the elegant, "flinty" wines of Chablis to rich, buttery Meursaults and New World wines with tropical fruit flavors. It’s also an important component of many sparkling wines around the world, including Champagne.
Chenin Blanc
Chenin Blanc is a variety of white wine grape from the Loire valley of France (Anjou, Touraine andVouvray). Its high acidity means it can be used to make everything from sparkling wines to well-balanced dessert wines. Outside the Loire, it’s the most widely planted variety in South Africa, where it’s known as Steen.
Cinsault is a red wine grape, whose heat tolerance and productivity make it important in Languedoc-Roussillon. It is often blended with grapes such as Grenache and Carignane to add softness and bouquet.
Clairette blanche
Clairette blanche is a white wine grape variety most widely grown in the wine regions of Provence, Rhône and Languedoc in France. It is also one of the thirteen grape varieties permitted in the Châteauneuf-du-Pape
Colombard is traditionally grown in the Charentes and Gascony for distilling into Cognac and Armagnac respectively. Today it is still used for white wine blends in certain Bordeaux AOCs and in Gascony for Vins de Pays Côtes de Gascogne. There are also substantial plantings in California.
Cortese is a variety of white wine grape grown primarily in northern Italy. It is most well known in Gavi, Piemonte, where it makes wine called Gavi or Gavi di Gavi.
Corvina is a wine grape variety used to make red wines. It is mainly grown in the Veneto region of northeast Italy. Corvina is used with other grapes to create the light red regional wines Bardolino and Valpolicella that have a mild fruity flavor with hints of almond. These blends include Rondinella, Molinara (and Rossignola for the latter wine) and the famous Amarone.
Courbu is the name of three different, but related varieties of wine grapes primarily found in South West France. Petit Courbu and Courbu Blanc are the best known.
Criolla Grande
Criolla Grande (also known as Criolla) is a wine grape commonly found in Argentina. Primarily found in the Mendoza region, the grape has pink skin and is used to produced deeply colored white wine.
Croatina is a red wine grape that is grown in Northern Italy, primarily in the Oltrepò Pavese region of (Lombardy) and in the Province of Piacenza within (Emilia Romagna), but also in parts of Piedmont and the Veneto.
Crouchen is a variety of white grape. It has its origins in France, although it is now rarely grown there. Instead, it is more commonly found in Australia, where it is often referred to as Clare Riesling
Dobričić is an ancient red wine grape variety from the island of Šolta off the Dalmatian coast in Croatia. It is one parent of the Plavac Mali red wine grape variety; the other one is Zinfandel, a grape variety also known as Crljenak Kaštelanski in Croatia, from where it originates.
Dolcetto is a black wine grape variety widely grown in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy. The name means “little sweet one,” though it is nearly always a dry wine. Dolcetto wines can be tannic and fruit driven with moderate levels of acidity. They are typically meant to be consumed one to two years after release. Dolcetto wines are known for black cherry and licorice flavors with some prunes and a characteristically bitter finish reminiscent of almonds.
Dornfelder is the second most grown red wine grape variety in Germany. Dornfelder has a depth of colour, good acidity and the ability to benefit from barrique aging and the associated oak flavours. Dornfelder wines are velvety textured, slightly floral, often show flavours of plums, blackberries or cherries, and are typically oaked. Sometimes of the wines have a hint of sweetness
See Petit Sirah
Ehrenfelser is a white wine grape variety of German origin. It was created by Dr. Heinrich Birk at the Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute in 1929, by crossing Riesling and Silvaner. Plantings are decreasing in Germany, though several vineyards in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia grow Ehrenfelser.
Faber or Faberrebe is a grape variety used for white wine. It was created by crossing Pinot Blanc and Müller-Thurgau in 1929 by Georg Scheu at the Landesanstalt für Rebenzüchtung in Alzey and was released with varietal protection in 1967. Wines produced from Faberrebe are fruity and rather “muscaty” aromas and a fresh taste with rather good acidity, and are light to golden yellow in colour.
Fetească albă
Fetească albă is a Moldovan white grape variety, mainly cultivated in Moldova and Romania. It is used a lot for sparkling wine production, but also for varietal Fetească wine.
Fetească neagră
Fetească neagră is an old pre-phylloxeric variety of Moldovan grape, grown mainly in several areas in the Romanian regions of Moldavia and Muntenia and also in the Republic of Moldova.
These grapes produce dry, semi-dry or sweet wines with a deep red colour and a black currant flavour, which becomes richer and smoother with aging.
Fetească regală
Fetească regală is a variety of Moldovan white grape variety, used for sparkling wine production, and for blending with Fetească albă. This variety is cultivated also in Transylvania, Romania, and is grown in most vineyards.
The Fiano is a white grape. It is a fairly strong flavoured wine grape native to the south of Italy, particularly in around Avellino in the Campania region, where Fiano di Avellino is a DOCG, and Sicily, and has been in cultivation for more than two thousand years.
Folle Blanche
Folle Blanche is used for table wine in the Loire Valley in the area around Nantes, where it produces a very dry and often tartly acidic wine that pairs well with shellfish. Folle Blanche was the traditional grape variety of the Cognac and Armagnac regions of France. It is also known as Picpoule (with various variations of spelling (Piquepoul, Picpoul), although it is in fact unrelated to the Picpoul of the Languedoc).
Freisa is a red wine grape variety grown in the Piedmont region of north-west Italy, primarily in Monferrato and in the Langhe. Wines made from the Freisa grape are red and usually somewhat sweet and lightly sparkling, or foaming. Still and fully sparkling versions are also produced as are perfectly dry and more decidedly sweet styles
Home for Friulano is the Friuli-Venezia Giulia where it one of the regions most widely planted grape variety. In the Friuli it is the main white grape of the Denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) zones of Colli Orientali del Friuli, Collio Goriziano, Friuli Grave and Friuli Isonzo. Also known as Sauvignon vert or Sauvignonasse is a white wine grape widely planted in Chile where it was historically mistaken for Sauvignon blanc. The grape is distinct from the California planting of Muscadelle which is also called Sauvignon vert.
Fromenteau (sometimes called Beurot) is the name for several grape varieties, most importantly the medieval name for a Burgundian variety which had pale red berries and white juice, and is probably the ancestor of Pinot Gris. It is also used as a synonym for the Roussanne of the Rhône, the Tokay d’Alsace of Alsace, and the Savagnin of the Jura.
Furmint is a white wine grape and is most widely grown in Hungary, particularly in the Tokaj-Hegyalja wine region where it is used to produce single-varietal dry white wines as well as being the principal grape in the better known Tokaji sweet dessert wines. It is also grown in the tiny Hungarian wine region of Somló. Furmint plays a similar role in the Slovakian wine region of Toka
Gaglioppo is a red wine grape that is grown in southern Italy, primarily around Calabria. The grape is of Greek origins and is thought to have been introduced to southern Italy around the same time as the Aglianico vine. The grape produces wine that is full-bodied, high in alcohol and tannins with a need for considerable time in the bottle for it to soften in character. It is sometimes blended with up to 10% white wine.
Gamay is a purple-colored grape variety used to make red wines, mainly in Beaujolais. Gamay-based wines are typically light bodied and fruity. Wines meant for immediate consumption are typically made using carbonic maceration which gives the wines tropical flavors and aromas – reminiscent of bananas
Garganega is a variety of white wine grape widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza.

It forms the basis of the well-known white wine Soave (along with up to 30% of Trebbiano) and is also a major portion of the blend used to make Gambellara. At its best this grape will give a good, rather delicate, wine laden with aromatic hints of lemon and almonds.

A high yielding grape. It is the most widely grown black grape in Spain, particularly in La Rioja, Madrid, Navarre, Tarragona, Teruel, Toledo and Zaragoza. It is considered a main variety in the following Denominación de Origens (DO): Ampurdán-Costa Brava, Calatayud, Campo de Borja, Cariñena, Cigales, Costers del Segre, La Mancha, Méntrida, Penedés, Priorato, Somontano, Tarragona, Terra Alta, Utiel-Requena, Valdeorras and Vinos de Madrid. Also known as Aragón, Aragonés, Garnache, Grenache and Lladoner
Gewürztraminer wines are white and usually off-dry, with a flamboyant bouquet of lychees. Dry Gewürztraminers may also have aromas of roses, passion fruit and floral notes. It is not uncommon to notice some spritz (fine bubbles on the inside of the glass). Its aromatic flavours make Gewürztraminer one of the few wines that is suitable for drinking with Asian cuisine. Alsace could be said to be its true home, where it is the second most planted grape variety and the one most characteristic of the region.
A high quality, very aromatic grape. Native to Galicia, new planting has been encouraged in the last few years, especially in Valdeorras DO. It is considered a main variety in Valdeorras and Bierzo DOs
Graciano is a Spanish red wine grape that is grown primarily in La Rioja. The vine produces a low yield of delicately scented grape that are normally harvested in late October. The wine that this grape produces is characterized by its deep red color, strong aroma and ability to age well. There are recent studies that suggest that ‘Monastrell’, formerly thought to be a Spanish synonym for Mourvedre, is in fact Graciano.
Grechetto is an Italian wine grape of Greek origins. The grape is planted throughout central Italy, particularly in the Umbria region where it is used in Orvieto (DOC) wine. It is primarily a blending grape, though some varietal wine is also produced. Grechetto is commonly blended with Chardonnay, Malvasia, Trebbiano and Verdello.
See Trebbiano
Grenache (in Spanish, Garnacha, in Catalan, Garnatxa) is probably the most widely planted variety of red wine grape in the world. It ripens late, so needs hot, dry conditions such as those found in Spain and in the south of France.It is generally spicy, berry-flavoured and soft on the palate with a relatively high alcohol content. It tends to lack acid, tannin and colour, and is usually blended with other varieties such as Syrah, Carignan and Cinsault. Grenache is the dominant variety in most Southern Rhône wines, especially in Châteauneuf-du-Pape where it is typically over 80% of the blend. In Australia it is typically blended in “GSM” blends with Syrah and Mourvèdre. Grenache is also used to make rosé wines in France and Spain
Grenache Blanc
Grenache blanc is a variety of white wine grape that is related to the red grape Grenache. It is mostly found in Rhône wine blends and in northeast Spain. Its wines are characterised by high alcohol and low acidity, with citrus and or herbaceous notes. It can contribute flavor and length to blends, particularly with Roussanne. Up to 10% Grenache blanc is permitted to be included in the red wines of the Côtes du Rhône Villages AOC.
Grignolino is a purple grape variety commonly grown in the Piemont region of Italy. It makes light red wines and rosés with a very fruity aroma and strong acid and tannins.
Grillo, also known as Riddu, is a white grape variety which withstands high temperatures and is widely used in Sicilian wine-making and, in particular, for Marsala.
Gros Menseng
Gros Manseng is a white grape variation of Manseng that produces dry wines in the Jurançon and Béarn regions of Southwest France. Gros Manseng does has thepotential to produce intensely flavored wines with high acidity, apricot and quince fruit along with spicy and floral notes.
Grüner Veltliner
Grüner Veltliner is a variety of white wine grape widely grown primarily in Austria and widely also in the Czech Republic, but almost nowhere else. It has a reputation of being a particularly food-friendly wine. Grüner Veltliner accounts for 36.0% of all vineyards in Austria, almost all of it being grown in the northeast of the country. It can produce a very pure, minerally wine capable of long ageing, that stands comparison with some of the great wines of the world. In contrast, it can also produce a spicy, peppery character, which can also be aged.
Hárslevelű is planted in several Hungarian wine regions, but most prominently in the tiny wine region of Somló, and especially in Tokaj-Hegyalja, where it is blended with Furmint to produce Tokaji Aszú and other dessert wines. The grape is also planted in the Slovakian wine region of Tokaj where it is used to produce similar wines. Vinified as a pure varietal dry wine, Hárslevelű is capable of yielding a dense, full-bodied, green-gold wine with an intense aroma of spice, pollen and elderflowers
Izkiriota Ttipi
See Petit Manseng
Izkiriota Handi
See Gros Manseng
Jacquère is a variety of white grape found primarily in the Savoy wine region of France. It is a high-yielding vine variety which is used to produce lightly scented, rather neutral dry white wine, such as Vin de Savoie. It is also found in Bugey wines.
Juhfark is a variety of white grape. The name in Hungarian literally means sheep’s tail. The term refers to the elongated, cylindrical shape of the clusters.

The grape is exclusively planted in Hungary, most prominently in the tiny wine region of Somló.

Kadarka is an old red wine grape varietal, most popular in Hungary. It is an important constituent of the Hungarian red "Bull’s Blood". Kadarka wine is characterised by full, easily recognizable taste, deep aroma and dark or medium dark colour.
Kalecik Karası
Kalecik Karası is a Turkish grape variety and a Turkish wine produced from this grape. This grape and wine are called by the name of area, the Kalecik district of Ankara Province, Turkey. Kalecik Karası grows successfully near the Kızılırmak (river) river and is used to make some of Turkey’s best red wine.
Ruby in colour, rich, well-balanced, with a lasting and charming aroma of red fruit, vanilla, and cocoa. It has a light, fresh, and elegant finish.
Kerner is an aromatic white grape. It was bred in 1929 by August Herold by crossing Trollinger (a red variety also known as Schiava grossa) with Riesling. Shows aromas of mixed white fruits, with hints of apple, grapefruit and mango
Kratosija is a red wine grape variety grown in the Tikveš wine-growing region of The Republic of Macedonia. In Macedonia, this variety is commonly mistaken with Vranac, a similar black grape variety from the coastal region of Crmnica, Montenegro.
Krstač is an ancient variety of grape that is indigenous for Montenegro. A high quality dry white wine is made of it. The wine is extremely rich, of harmonious bouquet and of light yellow color
Lagrein is a red wine grape native to the valleys of northern Italy in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region, north of Bolzano, near the border with Austria. Lagrein wine tends to have high acidity. It’s also highly tannic and a single varietal wine made from the grape can be extremely astringent, thus it is best blended.
The most highly-rated of its wines are the frothy, frizzante (slightly sparkling) red wines that are designed to be drunk young from one of the five Lambrusco denominazione di origine controllata (DOC) regions: Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro, Lambrusco di Sorbara, Lambrusco Salamino di Santa Croce, Lambrusco Reggiano, and Lambrusco Mantovano.
Len de l’El
Len de l’El is a white wine grape native to South West France. Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AOC) regulation dictate that the white wines from Gaillac must include at least 15% Len de l’El blended with Mauzac. Wine from Len de ‘El us typically full bodied with low acidity and powerful fruit notes.
Macabeo (Macabeu in Catalan) is a white wine grape. It is also known as Viura (and other names). It is widely grown in the Rioja region of northeastern Spain, the Cava producing areas south of Barcelona, and the Languedoc region of France. The grape is used to make mildly acidic and young white wines suitable for early consumption or blended with other varieties.

Macabeo is traditionally blended with Xarel lo and Parellada to make a sparkling Cava, the best known sparkling wine of Spain.

Malbec is a variety of black grape. The grapes tend to have an inky dark colour and robust tannins. Long known as one of the six grapes allowed in the blend of red Bordeaux wine, Malbec is now found primarily in Cahors in the South West France region. It is also celebrated as the main Argentine wine.
Malvasia is a group of wine grape varieties grown historically in the Mediterranean region and the island of Madeira, but now grown in many of the winemaking regions of the world.
Malvesia Nera
Malvasia Nera is a wine grape variety from Asti in Piemonte, Italy. Usually produces an intense red wine, usually sweet and parfumy called Malvasia.
Maratheftiko is an ancient grape variety indigenous to Cyprus. It goes by a number of local names and is grown in sparse quantities around the island but mostly in the Pitsilia region. In the 1980s, with the revival of small boutique wineries in Cyprus this variety was rediscovered and its cultivation is slowly on the increase again, as it offers a distinctive character to local wines.
Marsanne is a white wine grape, most commonly found in the northern Rhône, where it is often blended with Roussanne. In Australia, it is blended with Viognier and Rousanne in what’s commonly referred to as a "VMR". Marsanne produces deeply colored wines that are rich and nutty, with hints of spice and pear. As Marsanne ages, the wine take on an even darker color and the flavors can become more complex and concentrated with an oily, honeyed texture. Aromas of nuts and quince can also develop.
Mauzac is a minor grape variety mainly grown in the Gaillac region southeast of Bordeaux in France. It is used with Len de l’El to create mildly sweet and sparkling white blended wines.
Mavro is an indigenous red grape cultivated on the island of Cyprus. The grape takes its name from its dark colour. Despite being an ancient variety, its suitability to the hot Cypriot climate has made it the dominant cultivated vine on the island. It accounts for 70% of cultivated vines. Of note is that Mavro continues to grow on ancient rootstock unlike most mainland European grapes that are grafted on North American roostock. This is a consequence of Cyprus’ escape from the phylloxera epidemic in the 19th century.
Mavrodafni (also spelled Mavrodaphne, Greek: Μαυροδάφνη, Maurodaphnē) is both a black wine grape indigenous to the Achaia region in Northern Peloponnese, Greece
Mavrodafni is a dark, almost opaque wine with a dark purple reflected color and a purple-brown transmitted color. It presents aromas and flavors of caramel, chocolate, coffee, raisins and plums, and is one of very few wines that can accompany chocolate-based desserts.
Mavrud is a unique red wine common only to the region of Thrace in Bulgaria. It is a crystal clear wine with the typical ruby color of the sort, brisk and with beautiful sparkle. The aroma is clear and enduring. The taste combines that of grapes with a nuance of forest fruits.
Melon de Bourgogne
Melon de Bourgogne is a variety of white grape grown in the Loire Valley region of France and best known through its use in the wine Muscadet. As its name suggests, the grape originated in Burgundy and was grown there until its destruction was ordered in the early 18th century
Mencia is a grape variety that traditionally produced light, pale, relatively fragrant red wines for early consumption. More recent hillside plantings and careful vineyard management have produced bigger wines of greater depth and ageworthiness. It is widely planted in the northern Spainish region of Bierzo.
Merlot is a red wine grape that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines. Merlot-based wines usually have medium body with hints of berry, plum, and currant. Its softness and “fleshiness”, combined with its earlier ripening, makes Merlot an ideal grape to blend with the sterner, later-ripening Cabernet Sauvignon.
See Mourvèdre
Monica is a red wine grape that is grown primarily in Sardinia and is one of the few grapes that wine regulations allow to appear on the wine label. The vine originated in Spain but is rarely grown there. The wine made from these grapes tends to be simple and made to be consumed young. Monica di Cagliari is a notable sweet wine made from the grape. Monica di Sardegna is a drier wine.
Molinara is a red wine grape from Italy. It adds acidity to the Valpolicella blend made with Corvina and Rondinella. Bardolino also employs the grape at levels of between 10% and 20%. It is seldom seen outside these wines, and is losing ground to Corvina in its home territory, but can make wines with bright flavours of red currants and a certain floral quality.
Montepulciano d’Abruzzo is a type of wine grape as well as a type of red wine made from these same grapes in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy. Typically a fruity, dry wine with soft tannins, and as such is often consumed young. Not be confused with Brunello or Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Tuscan wines made from Sangiovese and other grapes, but not the Montepulciano variety
See Muscat
Moschofilero is an aromatic white grape of Greek origins with a rosy hue and quite spicy flavor with good acidity. Grown throughout much of Greece but especially in the Peloponnesian islands where it is used to make a dry and bold wine with lots of spice and perfume. Can have similar characteristics to the Muscat.
Mourvedre produces tannic wines that can be high in alcohol, and is most successful in Rhone-style blends. It has a particular affinity for Grenache, softening it and giving it structure. Its taste varies greatly according to area, but often has a wild, gamey or earthy flavour, with soft red fruit flavours. In Spain, known as Monastrell.
Mtsvane (or Mtsvani) is a white grape variety used to make Georgian wines. It is often blended with Rkatsiteli to which it adds a fruity, aromatic balance.
Mujuretuli is a red wine grape grown in Georgia to produce a rosé and a medium bodied, semi-dry, chewy blend (with Alexandrouli) having good acids and claimed to have aroma flavors reminiscent of pomegranates.
Müller-Thurgau is a variety of white grape which was created by Hermann Müller from the Swiss Canton of Thurgau in 1882. It is used to make white wine in Germany, Austria, Northern Italy, England, in Australia, Czech Republic, New Zealand and Japan.Müller-Thurgau wines are mild due to low acidic content, but nevertheless fruity. The wines may be drunk while relatively young, and with few exceptions are not considered to improve with age. These facts meant that Müller-Thurgau provided an economical way to cheaply produce large amounts of medium sweet German wines, such as Liebfraumilch and Piesporter, which were quite popular up until the 1980s

Muscadelle is a white wine grape. It has a simple aroma of grape juice and raisins like grapes of the Muscat family of grapes, but it is unrelated.

In France, it is a minor constituent in the sweet wines of Bordeaux, such as those of Sauternes and Barsac. It rarely makes up more than 10% of the blend, which is dominated by Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc

See Muscat, below
Muscat grapes are one of the major varieties grown for table wine in Chile, and is a minor variety in California and Italy. Muscat Ottonel is also successfully grown by a few vineyards in the Finger Lakes region of New York State. Currently it is produced into an Alsatian styled wine by McGregor Vineyard Winery on Keuka Lake.

In Italy, it is widely used in sweeter sparkling wines like Asti. Their ‘grapey’ quality makes many wines made from Muscat easy to identify. Moscato d’Asti is a lightly sparkling (frizzante) variety of Muscat, made from the Moscato Bianco (Muscato Canelli) grape of the Piedmont region of Italy. This region has a DOCG designation, and is also known for the production of Barbera d’Asti, Dolcetto d’Asti, and Asti Spumante.

Muscat is widely grown in Portugal and Spain, where the grape and the wines produced from it are known as Moscatel or Muscatel. Moscatels made in these countries are typically sweet and fortified.
In Spain, sweet fortified Moscatels are produced in a number of regions, notably Malaga and Jerez, and are sometimes made using the solera system. A variety of muscat is one of the varietals used in the production of Sherry. France also produces a number of sweet fortied vins doux naturels from muscat grapes, the best known being Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise

The Nebbiolo is one of the most important wine grape varieties of Italy’s Piedmont region. The grape is used to make wines such as Barolo, Barbaresco, Gattinara, Ghemme and Nebbiolo. These lightly coloured red wines can be massively tannic in youth with intriguing scents of tar and roses. As they age, the wines take on a characteristic brick-orange hue at the rim of the glass and mature to reveal complex aromas and flavours (violets, tar, wild herbs, cherries, raspberries, truffles, tobacco, prunes). These wines often take years to become approachable as they require ageing to tame the tannins from the grapes
Negroamaro is a red wine grape variety native to southern Italy. It is grown almost exclusively in Puglia and particularly in Salento. Wines made from Negroamaro tend to be very rustic in character, combining perfume with an earthy bitterness. The grape produces some of the best red wines of Puglia, particularly when blended with the highly scented Malvasia Nera, as in the case of Salice Salentino (wine).
Nero D’Avola
Nero d’Avola is the most important red wine grape in Sicily and is one of Italy’s most important indigenous varieties. It is named after Avola in the far south of Sicily and its wines are compared to New World Shirazes, with sweet tannins and plum or peppery flavours
Nielluccio is a red wine grape that is native to Corsica. It produces wines lacking in color and with high alcohol levels. It is commonly use to make rosé wine. Nielluccio is the principal grape varietal used in the production of red Patrimonio (a Corsican AC) where it must by law make up 98% of the blend.
Öküzgözü is a red Turkish grape variety, has a bright red color, reveals intense fruity flavors of raspberry and cherry, and is rich with a well-balanced body with light tannins.

Pais is a red wine grape that has played a prominent role in the Chilean wine industry. Up until the turn of the 21st century, it was Chile’s most planted variety until it was overtaken by Cabernet Sauvignon. Today it is most commonly used in the creation of jug wine in the Bío-Bío, Maule and Itata River regions in the south.
Palomino is a white grape widely grown mainly in Spain. It’s best known for its use in the manufacture of Sherry and is split into the sub-varieties Palomino Fino, Palomino Basto, and Palomino de Jerez, of which Palomino Fino is by far the most important, being the principal grape used in the manufacture of Sherry.
Parellada is a type of grape primarily grown in Catalonia. This is the main grape variety for the most well-known Catalan sparkling wine, Cava.
Pecorino is an early-ripening white wine grape mainly grown in the Marche, Abruzzo, Umbria and Lazio regions of Italy.
Pedro Ximenez
Pedro Ximénez is a white grape grown in certain regions of Spain, and also a varietal wine, an intensely sweet, dark, dessert sherry.
Petite Arvine
Petite Arvine is among the many distinctive varietals of Valais, in Switzerland. This colorful white wine is at once rich and enlivened by bright acidity, bursting with aromas of grapefruit, pear and apple. It’s also seen in Italy where it’s known colloqially as “Pe Ar”.
Petit Menseng
Petit Manseng is a white grape variation of Manseng and produces the highest quality wine of any grape in the Manseng family.
Petit Verdot
Petit Verdot is a red grape, principally used in classic Bordeaux blends. It ripens much later than the other varieties in Bordeaux, often too late, so it fell out of favour in its home region. When it does ripen, it is added in small amounts to add tannin, colour and flavour to the blend. It has attracted attention among winemakers in the New World, where it ripens more reliably and has been made into single varietal wine.
Petite Sirah
Petite Sirah (also known as Durif) produces dark, inky colored wines that are relatively acidic with firm texture and mouth feel. The bouquet has herbal and black pepper overtones. Compared to Syrah, the wine is darker and purplish in color. The wines are very tannic with good aging ability.
See Piquepoul
Pinot Blanc
Pinot Blanc is most commonly found in Alsace, where it is used for both still white wines and the most common variety used for sparkling wine, Crémant d’Alsace.
Pinot Bianco
See Pinot Blanc, just above
Pinot Grigio
See Pinot Gris, below
Pinot Gris
A major grape in Alsace, where it is markedly different from Pinot Gris (or Pinot Grigio) found elsewhere. Wines made from the Pinot Gris vary greatly and are dependent on the region and wine making style they are from. Alsatian Pinot gris are medium to full bodied wines with a rich, somewhat floral bouquet whereas Pinot Grigio from Italy is generally light-bodied, often lean wine that is light in color with sometimes spritzy flavors that can be crisp and acidic.
Pinot Meunier
Pinot Meunier is a variety of red wine grape most frequently used in the production of Champagne.
Pinot Noir
Pinot noir grapes are grown around the world, mostly in cooler climates, but the grape is chiefly associated with the Burgundy region of France, particularly Côte-d’Or. Generally, Pinot Noir tends to be of light to medium body with an aroma reminiscent of black cherry, raspberry or currant. Traditional red Burgundy is famous for its fleshy, ‘farmyard’ aromas, but changing fashions and new easier-to-grow clones have favoured a lighter, fruitier style. It is also used in the production of Champagne (usually along with Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier)
Pinotage is a red wine grape that is South Africa’s signature grape. It was bred there in 1925 as a cross between Pinot noir and Cinsault. It typically produces deep red varietal wines with smoky, bramble and earthy flavors, sometimes with notes of bananas and tropical fruit
Piquepoul is a white wine grape grown primarily in the Rhone Valley and Languedoc regions of France. It exists both in dark-skinned (Piquepoul noir) and light-skinned (Piquepoul blanc) versions. Piquepoul blanc is the most common. In Languedoc, Piquepoul blanc is used both for blending and for varietal wines. Picpoul de Pinet is a designation or cru which may be used within the Languedoc appellation for white wines made exclusively from Piquepoul blanc
Plavac Mali
Plavac Mali is the primary red wine grape grown along the Dalmatian coast(Croatia). The name refers to the small blue berries that the vines produce. Plavac Mali is known for producing wines that are rich in flavor and high in both alcohol and tannins. Common flavors and aromas include blackberries, pepper, and spices.
Grown in Puglia, southern Italy. It is identical to Zinfandel.
Prosecco is a variety of white grape grown in the Veneto region of Italy, and also gives its name to the sparkling wine made from the grape.
Refosco is an Italian family of dark-skinned grape varieties native to the northern Italian areas of Friuli, Gavi, and Trentino.Refosco is also grown in Slovenian, and Croatian parts of Istria, under the name of Refošk, or Teran, respectively. The grape is also known as Terlan or Terlano. The wines this grape yields can be quite powerful and tannic, with a deep violet color and a slight bitterness. On the palate, there is strong currant, wild berry, and plum. The wine can stand some aging, and after a period of four-to-ten years, it achieves a floral quality as well.
Riesling is an aromatic white grape displaying flowery, almost perfumed, aromas as well as high acidity. It is used to make dry, semi-sweet, sweet and sparkling white wines. Chardonnay, Riesling is a variety which is highly “terroir-expressive”, meaning that the character of Riesling wines is clearly influenced by the wine’s place of origin.
Rkatsiteli makes noticeably acidic, balanced white wine with spicy and floral notes in the aroma. Rkatsiteli originates in Georgia and is one of the oldest grape varieties.
Rondinella is a red wine grape mainly grown in the Veneto region of Italy and used in wines such as Valpolicella and Bardolino. The main grape used for these wines, however, is the Corvina.
Roussanne is a white wine grape grown originally in the Rhône wine region in France, where it is often blended with Marsanne. It is the only other white variety, besides Marsanne, allowed in the northern Rhône appellations of Crozes-Hermitage AOC, Hermitage AOC and Saint-Joseph AOC. In the southern Rhône appellation of Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC it is one of six white grapes allowed, along with Grenache blanc, Piquepoul blanc, Clairette, Bourboulenc and Picardan. The aroma of Roussanne is often reminiscent of a flowery herbal tea. In warm climates, it produces wines of richness, with flavors of honey and pear, and full body. In cooler climates it is more floral and more delicate, with higher acidity.
Ruché is a wine grape from Italy’s Piedmont region. It is largely used in making Ruché di Castagnole Monferrato, a small production red varietal wine. Ruché di Castagnole Monferrato is a very distinctive, medium bodied wine with clear notes of pepper and wild berries. The wine is quite floral on the nose. Its body is characterized by a pleasant acidity and soft tannins
Sagrantino is an Italian grape varietal that is indigenous to the region of Umbria in Central Italy, and makes some of that region’s most distinctive wines. It is grown primarily in the village of Montefalco. The grape is one of the most tannic varietals in the world, and creates wines that are inky purple with an almost-black centre. The nose is one of dark, brooding red fruits with hints of plum, cinnamon, and earth.
Sangiovese is most famous as the main component of the Chianti blend in Tuscany. Young sangiovese has fresh fruity flavours of strawberry and a little spiciness, but it readily takes on oaky, even tarry, flavours when aged in barrels. Its best expression is probably in the wines of Brunello di Montalcino.
Saperavi is a red grape variety used to make Georgian wines. Two notable examples are Kindzmarauli (two years old) and Mukuzani (three year old and vintage). It originated from Kakheti region of Eastern Georgia and now is spread throughout its entire territory. One year old wine made from this grape is branded as “Saperavi”. It produces substantial deep red wines that are suitable for extended aging, perhaps up to fifty years
Sauvignon Blanc
Originates from the Bordeaux region of France but now planted in many of the world’s wine regions, producing a crisp, dry, and refreshing white wine. Depending on climate, the flavor can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical. Wine experts have used the phrase “crisp, elegant, and fresh” as a favorable description of Sauvignon blanc from the Loire Valley and New Zealand
Sauvignon Vert
See Muscadelle
Savatiano is a white Greek wine grape used primarily in the wine Retsina. It is one of Greece’s most widely planted grape varieties and is known for its resistance to drought condition. It is mostly planted throughout central Greece, particularly in Attica near Athens. In Retsina, the naturally low acidity of the grape is sometimes compensated from by the addition of Assyrtiko and Rhoditis in the blend
Sciacarello (or Sciaccarello) is a red wine grape that is grown primarily in Corsica. It is most noted for the wines that come from Ajaccio which tends to be highly perfumed. The grape is normally blended and rarely made into a varietal wine.
Scheurebe is a white wine grape variety primarily grown in Germany and Austria. Scheurebe wines are highly aromatic, and the variety is often used for sweet wines, although dry Scheurebe wines have become more common in Germany. Scheurebe was created by German viticulturalist Dr. Georg Scheu in 1916.
The Sémillon grape is rather heavy, with low acidity and an almost oily texture. It has a high yield and wines based on it can age a long time. In France, Sémillon grape is grown mostly in Bordeaux where it is blended with Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle. When dry, it is referred to as Bordeaux blanc. Its also a major constituent in the sweet white wines of Bordeaux (Sauternes, Barsac). In Australia it is best known as a single varietal from Hunter Valley.
Sercial (Cerceal in Portuguese) is the name applied to any of several white grapes grown in Portugal, especially on the island of Madeira, and gives its name to the dryest of the four classic varieties of Madeira fortified wine.

The grape is grown in diminishing quantities at the southern end of the island. Its late ripening allows it to retain its characteristic acidity. Its fortified wines have been known to last for well over a century.

See Syrah
Souzão (or Sousao) is Portuguese wine grape that is used in the production of port wine. In Portugal, it is also an authorized planting in the Dao area (Vinho do Dão). The grape is known for the deep color it produces in a wine as well as its coarse and raisiny taste.
Sylvaner is a white wine grape grown primarily in Alsace and Germany. The vigour of the Sylvaner vine is all important as the grape’s neutral flavour can lead to blandness unless yields are controlled. On the other hand it gives a blank canvas for the expression of terroir, and on good sites with skilled winemaking, Sylvaner can produce elegant wine. It has high acidity but is naturally quite sweet, so is often blended with other varieties such as Riesling or Elbling, and is sometimes made into a dessert wine.
Syrah is a dark-skinned variety of grape used in wine. Syrah is grown in many countries and is primarily used to produce powerful red wines. Syrah produces wines with a wide range of flavor notes, depending on the climate and soils where it is grown. Aroma characters can range from violets to dark berries, chocolate, espresso and black pepper. No one aroma can be called “typical” though blackberry and pepper are often noticed.
Tannat is a red wine grape, historically grown in South West France in the Madiran AOC and is now one of the most prominent grapes in Uruguay, where it is considered the “national grape”. A French Tannat is characterized by its firm, tannic structure with raspberry aromas and the ability to age well. They often have a deep dark color with high level of alcohol. Tannat wines produced in Uruguay are characterized by more elegant and softer tannins and blackberry fruit notes.
Tarrango is a variety of red grape used in the manufacture of red wine in Australia.

This slow-ripening grape was created in 1965 by the CSIRO Horticultural Research Station at Merbein in Victoria, Australia, as a hybrid of Touriga Nacional and Sultana in order to create wines of good acidity, but low in tannin. Its wines are reasonably-priced and often similar to Beaujolais in style.

Tempranillo is a variety of black grape widely grown to make full-bodied red wines. It is the main grape used in Rioja, and is often referred to as Spain’s “noble grape”. Tempranillo wines can be consumed young, but the most expensive ones are aged for several years in oak barrels. The wines are ruby red in colour, with aromas and flavors of berries, plum, tobacco, vanilla, leather and herbs.
Terret Noir
Terret Noir is a red wine grape that is grown in the Rhone Valley and is a permitted blending grape for Châteauneuf-du-Pape. The Terret Noir produces a light color wine that is perfumed and tart
Tinta Barroca
Tinta Barroca is a Portuguese red wine grape that is grown primarily in the Douro region. In Portugal, it is a common blending grape in Port wine while in South Africa it is normally made into a varietal.
Tinta Cao
Tinta Cao is a Portuguese red wine grape that has been grown primarily in the Douro region since the sixteenth century. The vine produces very low yields which has led it close to extinction despite the high quality of wine that it can produce.
Torrontes is the characteristic white wine grape of Argentina, producing fresh, aromatic white wines. In fact, the name is given to three criolla varieties in Argentina, Torrontés Riojano which is most common, Torrontés Sanjuanino and Torrontés Mendocino. A grape called Torrontés is found in Galicia in Spain – the relationship to the Argentine varieties is uncertain.
Touriga Francesa
Touriga Francesa (or Touriga Franca) is one of the major grape varieties used to produce port wine. Touriga Francesa is lighter and more perfumed than Touriga Nacional and adds finesse to this powerful wine.
Touriga Nacional
Touriga Nacional is a variety of red wine grape, considered by many to be Portugal’s finest. Despite the notoriously low yields from its small grapes, it plays a big part in the blends used for the best ports, and is increasingly being used for table wine in the Douro and Dão.
Touriga Nacional provides structure and body to wine, with high tannins and concentrated flavours of black fruit.
Trebbiano is a grape variety that probably makes more white wine in the world than any other. It can be fresh and fruity, but doesn’t keep long. Also known as Ugni Blanc, it has many other names reflecting a family of local subtypes, particularly in Italy and France. Perhaps the most successful Trebbiano-based blend are the Orvieto whites of Umbria. Known in France as Ugni Blanc.
Ugni Blanc
See Trebbiano
Valdiguié is a red wine grape grown primarily in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France, where it is generally known by the alias Gros Auxerrois. In Gaillac it is known as Brocol, and in California it has been known as Napa Gamay. Valdiguié produces dark colored wines that are low in alcohol. The wines tend to be of light to medium body and are frequently made in a style similar to the true Gamay of Beaujolais. Some producers use carbonic maceration in order to produce a wine with a deep, purple-red color and fruity taste, with flavors of berries and black cherry.
One of Spain’s higher quality white grape varieties which languished in obscurity for several hundred years before being rediscovered 15 years ago. It is a native grape of Rueda in North-west Spain and is now its principal white grape variety. Verdejo dominated wines are crisp with soft, creamy, nutty overtones, and sometimes accompanied by notes of honey. Arguably Spain’s finest white grape variety.
Verdelho is a white wine grape grown throughout Portugal, though most associated with the island of Madeira, and also gives its name to one of the four main types of Madeira wine. Verdelho is often confused with Verdelho Tinto, a red grape also grown in Madeira. The grape is also confused with the similarly named Verdelho Feijão of Portugal, the Italian grape Verdello and the Verdejo white grape grown in Spain.
Verdicchio is a variety of white grape grown in the Marche region of Italy and gives its name to the varietal white wine made from it. The name is a derivative of the word “verde” which means green due to its slight green/yellow hue.
Vermentino is a late-ripening white grape originating in Spain or Madeira, or perhaps Portugal, and now widely planted in Corsica, Sardinia, and the coastal arc running from Tuscany through Liguria and into southern France, around Nice (where it is known as Rolle). The most famous wine made from Vermentino is probably the DOCG Vermentino di Gallura which is produced in the province of Olbia-Tempio, in the north of Sardinia
Vernaccia is a white wine grape that is found in many Italian wines but is most commonly associated the Tuscan wine Vernaccia di San Gimignano. It produces crisp wine with good acidity and citrus. fruit.
The white Viognier grape prefers warmer environments and a long growing season, but can grow in cooler areas as well. In France, it’s the single grape permitted the appellations of Condrieu. In the Rhone wine region, the grape is often blended with Roussanne and Marsanne. In the Côte-Rôtie, northern Rhone, it’s blended with Syrah. The highly aromatic and fruit forward nature of the grape allows Viognier to pair well with spicy foods such as Thai cuisine
See Macabeo
Vranec is an ancient variety of black grape that is indigenous to the Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro. Vranec is considered the most important variety of grape in Montenegro and the one of the most important in the Republic of Macedonia. The young Vranec wines have a bright purple hue and a nose full of red berries and fruit jams. Its firm tannin structure provides crispness and richness with medium to high levels of extraction and acidity. After a year or two of ageing the purple develops into an intense dark ruby and the nose develops a more complex aroma that can include hints of cinnamon, chocolate, liquorice, flowers, black fruits, herbs and even woods such as oak. The taste is subtle, round and full, it loses its sharpness and develops a longer and smoother finish.
Xarel·lo is a white grape specially grown in Catalonia. With Macabeu and Parellada, is one of the three traditional varieties used to make the Catalonian sparkling wine known as cava.
Xynomavro is the sole variety permitted under the Naousa and Amyntaio (OPAP) appellations and one of two (with Negoska) under the Goumenissa appellation
Xuri Zerratua
See Courbu
Xynisteri is an indigenous white grape grown on Cyprus. 13% of Cyprus vineyards are planted with this grape variety. It is used in the production of several local (mainly white) wines. Notably, it is blended with Mavro grapes for the production of Commandaria, a well-known Cypriot dessert wine
Zierfandler is a grape variety used to make white wine in the Thermenregion of Austria. It is also known as Spätrot (“late red”) because it turns red just before harvest time. It is traditionally blended with Rotgipfler but is increasingly being sold as a single varietal wine. Zierfandler wines are typically elegant and quite sweet, but with lots of balancing acidity and a nutty bouquet of pistachios and almonds. They are capable of ageing well.
Zinfandel makes a robust red wine. The taste of the red wine depends on the ripeness of the grapes from which it is made. Red berry fruits like raspberry predominate in wines from cooler areas such as the Napa Valley, whereas blackberry, anise and pepper notes are more common in wines made in warmer areas such as Sonoma County, and in wines made from the earlier-ripening Primitivo clone.
Zweigelt is a red wine grape variety developed in 1922, at the Federal Institute for Viticulture and Pomology at Klosterneuburg, Austria, by Fritz Zweigelt. It is now the most widely-grown red grape variety in Austria, as well as having some presence in Canada’s vineyards. Because of its fruity characteristics, it has been compared to the wines produced from the Gamay grape, like the red wines of Beaujolais.